Vitamins and supplements, science reveals their effectiveness

Seduce multivitamins and dietary supplements to fill nutritional gaps in your diet by 2021. Americans will spend nearly $ 50 billion (almost € 48 billion). vitamins and food supplements.

But researchers say there are vitamins in healthy, non-pregnant people loss of money because there is not enough evidence that they help prevent cardiovascular disease or cancer. The new guidelines emphasize that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of multivitamins or dietary supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease or cancer in healthy adults.

Only pregnant women and pregnant women still need the necessary vitamins (iron, folic acid), say researchers at Northwestern University (USA) in an editorial in the JAMA magazine.

“Patients are constantly asked what supplements they should take. – According to Jeffrey Linder, MD, Head of the Department of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Feinberg Medical School, Northwestern University. They waste money and focus on the idea that in order to stay healthy, there must be a magic pill when we all have to follow evidence-based healthy eating and exercise practices.

Linder and other Northwestern medical researchers wrote a JAMA editorial to support the new recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Working Group (USPSTF), an independent group of national experts that typically provides evidence-based evidence for clinical prevention services.

There is a lack of evidence

Based on a systematic review of 84 studies, the new USPSTF guidelines suggest this. no “sufficient evidence” that taking multivitamins, combination supplements or separate supplements may to help prevent cardiovascular disease and heart disease. cancer for adults otherwise healthy and not pregnant.

“The task force doesn’t say you shouldn’t take multivitamins, but the idea is that if they really helped you, you already know,” says Linder.

The Working Group specifically advises against the use of beta-carotene supplements due to the potential increased risk of lung cancer and vitamin E supplements, as this has no clear benefit in reducing mortality, cardiovascular disease or cancer.

“It’s unfortunate that talking to patients about food supplements in the short time we see them lacks advice on how to actually reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, such as exercise or quit smoking ”.Linder admits this.

Consumption is growing

More than half of American adults are taking dietary supplements, so their use is expected to increase, Linder and colleagues wrote.

They note that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. So it makes sense for essential vitamins and minerals to be extracted from fruits and vegetables packaged in tablets, which would save people the hassle and expense of maintaining a balanced diet.

However, they explain that healthy fruits and vegetables contain vitamins, phytochemicals, fiber, and other nutrients that are likely to act synergistically to benefit health. Website Isolated trace elements may act differently. in the body only in combination with other components of the diet.

Ms Linder stresses that people who are deficient in vitamins can still benefit from taking dietary supplements such as calcium and vitamin D, which have been shown to protect against fractures and possibly falls in the elderly.

Exception for pregnant women

New USPSTF guidelines does not apply to pregnant women or women who wish to become pregnant, notes co-author of JAMA editorial dr. Natalie Cameron, Feinberg General Internal Medicine Instructor.

Pregnant women should be aware that these recommendations do not apply to them, ”says Cameron, who is also a doctor at Northwestern Medicine. Certain vitamins, such as folic acid, are essential for pregnant women to aid in the healthy development of the fetus.

He explains that “the most common way to meet these needs is to take a prenatal vitamin. Additional data are needed to understand how supplementation with certain vitamins can change the risk of unwanted pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular complications during pregnancy, ”he notes.

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