Antivitamin K (AVK): list, effects, contraindications

Vitamin K antagonists, or VKAs, are anticoagulants designed to thin the blood. These drugs are prescribed for phlebitis, pulmonary embolism, certain arrhythmias. The patient should be monitored closely throughout treatment. We appreciate Dr. Marie Bozon.

Definition: What is AVK?

Vitamin K antagonists (also called AVK) are drugs anticoagulants orally. “Their role is dilutes the blood and prevents the formation of blood clots (blood clots) in the blood vessels due to clotting“explains Dr. Marie Bozon, a pharmacist-biologist. These drugs are special established in that case phlebitispulmonary embolism, certain cardiac arrhythmias.

VKA reduce the effects of vitamin K.which controls the production and activation of various coagulation factors in the liver. The purpose is to thin the blood. There are two types of ADRs: short-term ADRs and long-term ADRs with more stable and longer effects. “Lthe efficacy of these anticoagulants varies widely from one patient to another“Dr. Bozon continues therefore it is necessary to perform regular blood tests throughout treatment so that the dose can be adjusted if necessary“.

Why use VKA?

“LVitamin K antagonists are prescribed treatment and prevention of phlebitis and pulmonary embolismin certain cardiac pathologies (disorders heart beatcomplicated after myocardial infarction…) And between heart valve carriers“Concludes our interlocutor.

What medications does it contain?

The Cumadin® (warfarin), Previscan® (fluindione) and syndrome ® (acenocoumarol) are the three major specialties in the class of vitamin K antagonists“, – adds the specialist; Coumadin® is the most designated molecule.

What are the side effects and risks?

The biggest risk with these drugs is in case of overdose, bleeding episodes (bleeding)“Dr. Bozon warns.Therefore a It is recommended that the dose be controlled in the event of unexplained bruising, bleeding in the urine or faeces, heavy bleeding gums, tiredness, severe paleness or unexplained discomfort. In case of underdose, thrombotic events may occur, e.g. phlebitiswhere pulmonary embolism.

L ‘INR (International Normalized Ratio) is a biological test evaluating the performance of the AVK. “The ‘target INR’ varies from patient to patient according to their treatment indications.Explains the doctor. “The dose of AVK is adjusted in steps checking the INR every 2 to 4 days until its value stabilizes after two consecutive checks in this target range. Once the target INR is reached, inspections will be performed at least once a month or more frequently if imbalances are suspected.

What are the contraindications?

AVK is contraindicated in the case of pregnancy and breast-feeding, severe hepatic impairment. “Association with aspirin in anti-inflammatory doses painkillers or antipyretics, DAKTARIN miconazole and St. John’s wort is contraindicated “, Dr. Bozon answers.

What are drug interactions?

In this regard, self-medication should be avoided high risk of drug interactions. “Many medicines can increase (risk of bleeding) or reduce (risk of thrombosis) the effects of AVK.“- assures our interlocutor. “If an interaction is suspected, for example in a test, a laboratory test for INR may be offered. when administered in conjunction with antibiotics“.

What foods should be avoided when treating AVK?

There are some guidelines for treating AVK: balanced diet and moderate alcohol consumption“, – recommends the biologist. vitamin K found in large quantities broccoli, cabbage, sauerkraut, Brussels sprouts, watercress, spinach, lettuce, dandelion, parsley, rapeseed oil and soybean oil and in large quantities in green beans, beans, asparagus, cucumbers, peas, red cabbage, , margarine and olive oil. Tomatoes, on the other hand, are low in vitamin K, but it is advisable to warn that they should not be needed often and in large quantities in the form of salads, sauces or even ketchup. “All sitie foods are not prohibited as long as you distribute them in your diet daily and without excess to avoid significant changes in consumption. In any case, do not hesitate contact your doctor or pharmacist. A information and follow-up book You may be offered treatment“.

We thank dr. Marie BOZON, pharmacologist, co-respondent from the UNIBIO laboratory, Romans-sur-Isère (26), member of the Les Biologistes Indépendants network.

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